Chapter 9 - Kinetic Model of Matter

1.

Describe how you would demonstrate Brownian motion of smoke particles in the air. State and explain the observations.

  • Direct light into the side of an enclosed smoke cell/chamber.
  • View the smoke particles from the top, under a microscope.
  • Bright specks of smokes will be seen as light reflects from the smoke particles
  • The bright specks are observed to be in continuous random motion which proves that the smoke particles are in random motion.
  • The smoke particles are in random motion because they continually bombarded unevenly on different sides by the air molecules.

 

2.

*Using the kinetic model of gases, explain how gases exerts a pressure on the walls of its container.

  • When a gas particle collides onto the wall of the container, a force is exerted on it.
  • Numerous such collisions by the many molecules results in an average force exerted on the wall.
  • This force acting per unit area give rise to pressure exerted by the gas molecules on the walls of the container.

 3.

*Using the kinetic model of gases, explain why the pressure exerted by a fixed mass of gas increases when its volume is reduced at constant temperature.

  • When the volume is reduced, the number of particles per unit volume increases.
  • Therefore, the gas particles collides more frequency with the walls, resulting in greater force exerted on the container wall.
  • Since pressure P = F/A, a greater force F results in greater pressure.

4.

*Using the kinetic model of gases, explain why the pressure exerted by a fixed mass of gas increases when its temperature is raised. Assume that the volume and mass of the gas remains constant.

  • When the temperature of the gas is raised, the particles have higher KE and moves faster.
  • They collide with the walls of the container more vigorously and at higher frequency, resulting in greater force exerted on the container wall.
  • Since pressure P = F/A, a greater force F results in greater pressure.

5.

*A gas syringe is being heated and the piston begins to be move outwards and eventually stops. Explain.

  • Upon heating, the gas pressure increases to more than that of the atmospheric pressure.
  • As a result, a resultant force acts outwards which pushes the piston outwards.
  • As the piston moves outwards, the volume of the cylinder increases, causing the gas pressure to decrease.
  • When the gas pressure drops back to a value equal to that of atmospheric pressure, there will be no more resultant outward force and the piston will stop being pushed out.